Audiopologie

Key Signature Examples

 

The Legendary Key of C

 

Key of C (A minor)

Cmaj ❘ Dmin ❘ Emin ❘ Fmaj ❘ Gmaj ❘ Amin ❘ Bdim

Key of C ❘ 7 Chords

Cmaj7 ❘ Dmin7 ❘ Emin7 ❘ Fmaj7 ❘ G7 ❘ Amin7 ❘ Bmin7 flat 5

 

Key of C# (Bb minor)

C#maj ❘ D#min ❘ E#min ❘ F#maj ❘ G#maj ❘ A#min ❘ B#dim

 

Key of C# ❘ 7 Chords

C#maj7 ❘ D#min7 ❘ E#min7 ❘ F#maj7 ❘ G#7 ❘ A#min7 ❘ B#min7 flat 5

 

 

The Decadent Key of D

 

Key of D (B minor)

Dmaj ❘ Emin ❘ F#min ❘ Gmaj ❘ Amaj ❘ Bmin ❘ C#dim

 

Key of D ❘ 7 Chords

Dmaj7 ❘ Emin7 ❘ F#min7 ❘ Gmaj7 ❘ A7 ❘ Bmin 7 ❘ C#min7 flat 5

 

Key of Eb (C minor)

Ebmaj ❘ Fmin ❘ Gmin ❘ Abmaj ❘ Bbmaj ❘ Cmin ❘ Ddim

Key of Eb ❘ 7 Chords

 

Ebmaj7 ❘ Fmin7 ❘ Gmin7 ❘ Abmaj7 ❘ Bbmaj7 ❘ Cmin7 ❘ Dm7b5

 

 

The Almighty Key of A

 

Key of A (F# minor)

Amaj ❘ Bmin ❘ C#min ❘ Dmaj ❘ Emaj ❘ F#min ❘ G#dim

 

Key of A ❘ 7 Chords

Amaj7 ❘ Bmin7 ❘ C#min7 ❘ Dmaj7 ❘ Emaj 7 ❘ F#min7 ❘ G#dim7

 

Key of Ab (F minor)

Abmaj ❘ Bbmin ❘ Cmin ❘ Dbmaj ❘ Ebmaj ❘ Fmin ❘ Gdim

 

 

To review all of music theory click here.

Diatonic Formula

 

Imaj IImin IIImin IVmaj V VImin VIImin (b5)

Or with seventh chords

Imaj7 IImin7 IIImin7 IVmaj7 V7 VImin7 VIImin7 (b5)

This can be used for any key.

 

Amaj7= Imaj7

Bmin7= IImin7

C#min7=IIImin7

Dmaj7=IVmaj7

E7= V7

F#min7= VImin7

G#min7 (b5)= VIImin7 (b5)

 

 

These chords also fall under the categories Tonic,

Dominant and Subdominant.

Tonic chords provide a restful feeling.

The Tonic chords are Imaj, IIImin and VImin

Dominant chords provide a powerful feeling,

and like to resolve to the tonic chords.

The Dominant chords are V and VIImin(b5)

Sub-dominant chords provide a powerful feeling

as well but feel less of a need to resolve to the tonic.

The Subdominant (cadence) chords are IImin and IVmaj 

 

Below are three examples of key signatures, for the rest, you can get them by applying the diatonic formula.

Extra Diatonic Formulas

 

               Major

 

Imaj  ❘   IImin  ❘   IIImin   ❘     IVmaj    ❘    V    ❘     VImin   ❘    VIImin (b5)

 

   Minor

 

Imin  ❘   IIdim  ❘     III      ❘     IVmin    ❘   Vmin    ❘    VI      ❘      VII

 

     Melodic Minor

 

Imin  ❘    IImin  ❘      III    ❘       IV      ❘     V    ❘      VImin    ❘   VIImin

 

   Harmonic Minor

 

Imin   ❘   IImino  ❘    III+   ❘    IVmin    ❘     V     ❘      VI    ❘    VIImino 

Progressions

 

 

Progressions are meant to be played in songs.

 

Play along with the I-IV-V-IV in a challenging soukous song by clicking here.

 

 

Modes

 

C Ionian: C D E F G A B C

D Dorian: D E F G A B C D

E Phrygian: E F G A B C D E

F Lydian: F G A B C D E F

G Mixolydian:    G A B C D E F G

A Aeolian: A B C D E F G A

B Locrian: B C D E F G A B 

 

W=whole step 

H=half step

 

Locrian Scale Intervals: H W W H W W W

Aeolian Scale Intervals: W H W W H W W 

Mixolydian Scale Intervals: W W H W W H W 

Lydian Scale Intervals: W W W H W W H 

Phrygian Scale Intervals: H W W W H W W 

Dorian Scale Intervals: W H W W W H W 

Ionian Scale Intervals: W W H W W W H 

 

 

EF and BC are half steps.

 

The scales were originally modes etched in stone tablets around Ancient Greece.

 

The major modes are Ionian, Lydian and Mixolydian. C Ionian is the C major scale. The Lydian mode has a # 4th scale note. Mixolydian mode has a flatted 7th.

 

The minor modes are called Aeolian, Dorian and Phrygian. Aeolian is the same as natural minor, flat 3rd, 6th and 7th. Dorian is the same as Aeolian except with flats on just the 3rd and 7th.

Melodic Minor

Treasure Trove of Traditional Melodic

Minor

 

the formula is 

Ascending 

1 2♭3 4 5 ♮6 ♮7 8 

Descending 

8♭7♭ 6 5 4 ♭3 2 1

 

Key of C Traditional Melodic Minor 

Ascending 

C D ♭E F G ♮A♮B C 

1  2 ♭3 4  5 ♮6♮7  8

 

Key of C Traditional Melodic Minor 

Descending 

C ♭B ♭A G F ♭E D C 

8  ♭7 ♭ 6 5 4 ♭3  2  1

 

 

 Ancient Studies of Melodic Minor Scales

 


Navigate to Sheet Music of Harmonic Scales by clicking map.

 

 

 

Real Melodic Minor 

The formula is

C D Eb F G A B 

1 23 4 567

for descending read it backwards

Key of C Melodic Minor

C D Eb F G A B

Key of D Melodic Minor

D E F G A B C#

Key of E Melodic Minor

E F# G A B C# D#

Key of F Melodic Minor

F G Ab Bb C D E

Key of G Melodic Minor

G A Bb C D E F#

 
 Majestic Melodic Minor Keys


Key of C Melodic Minor

Cmin ❘ Dmin ❘ Ebaug ❘ Fmaj ❘ Gmaj ❘ Adim ❘ Bdim

Key of D Melodic Minor

Dmin ❘ Emin ❘ Faug ❘ Gmaj ❘ Amaj ❘ Bdim ❘ C#dim

Key of E Melodic Minor

Emin ❘ F#min ❘ Gaug ❘ Amaj ❘ Bmaj ❘ C#dim ❘ D#dim

Key of F Melodic Minor

Fmin ❘ Gmin ❘ Abaug ❘ Bmaj ❘ Cmaj ❘ Ddim ❘ Edim

Key of G Melodic Minor

Gmin ❘ Amin ❘ Bbaug ❘ Cmaj ❘ Dmaj ❘ Edim ❘ F#dim


Heavenly Harmonic Minor Keys


Key of C Harmonic Minor

Cmin ❘ Ddim ❘ Ebaug ❘ Fmin ❘ Gmaj ❘ Abmaj ❘ Bdim

Key of D Harmonic Minor

Dmin ❘ Edim ❘ Faug ❘ Gmin ❘ Amaj ❘ Bbmaj ❘ C#dim

Key of E Harmonic Minor

Emin ❘ F#dim ❘ Gaug ❘ Amin ❘ Bmaj ❘ Cmaj ❘ D#dim

Key of F Harmonic Minor

Fmin ❘ Gdim ❘ Abaug ❘ Bbmin ❘ Cmaj ❘ Dbmaj ❘ Edim

Key of A Harmonic Minor

Amin ❘ Bdim ❘ Caug ❘ Dmin ❘ Emaj ❘ Fmaj ❘ G#dim

Key of B Harmonic Minor

Bmin ❘ C#dim ❘ Daug ❘ Emin ❘ F#maj ❘ Gmaj ❘ A#dim

 

Majestic Melodic Minor Keys


Key of C Melodic Minor

Cmin ❘ Dmin ❘ Ebaug ❘ Fmaj ❘ Gmaj ❘ Adim ❘ Bdim

Key of D Melodic Minor

Dmin ❘ Emin ❘ Faug ❘ Gmaj ❘ Amaj ❘ Bdim ❘ C#dim

Key of E Melodic Minor

Emin ❘ F#min ❘ Gaug ❘ Amaj ❘ Bmaj ❘ C#dim ❘ D#dim

Key of F Melodic Minor

Fmin ❘ Gmin ❘ Abaug ❘ Bmaj ❘ Cmaj ❘ Ddim ❘ Edim

Key of G Melodic Minor

Gmin ❘ Amin ❘ Bbaug ❘ Cmaj ❘ Dmaj ❘ Edim ❘ F#dim


Heavenly Harmonic Minor Keys


Key of C Harmonic Minor

Cmin ❘ Ddim ❘ Ebaug ❘ Fmin ❘ Gmaj ❘ Abmaj ❘ Bdim

Key of D Harmonic Minor

Dmin ❘ Edim ❘ Faug ❘ Gmin ❘ Amaj ❘ Bbmaj ❘ C#dim

Key of E Harmonic Minor

Emin ❘ F#dim ❘ Gaug ❘ Amin ❘ Bmaj ❘ Cmaj ❘ D#dim

Key of F Harmonic Minor

Fmin ❘ Gdim ❘ Abaug ❘ Bbmin ❘ Cmaj ❘ Dbmaj ❘ Edim

Key of A Harmonic Minor

Amin ❘ Bdim ❘ Caug ❘ Dmin ❘ Emaj ❘ Fmaj ❘ G#dim

Key of B Harmonic Minor

Bmin ❘ C#dim ❘ Daug ❘ Emin ❘ F#maj ❘ Gmaj ❘ A#dim

Majestic Melodic Minor Keys


Key of C Melodic Minor

Cmin ❘ Dmin ❘ Ebaug ❘ Fmaj ❘ Gmaj ❘ Adim ❘ Bdim

Key of D Melodic Minor

Dmin ❘ Emin ❘ Faug ❘ Gmaj ❘ Amaj ❘ Bdim ❘ C#dim

Key of E Melodic Minor

Emin ❘ F#min ❘ Gaug ❘ Amaj ❘ Bmaj ❘ C#dim ❘ D#dim

Key of F Melodic Minor

Fmin ❘ Gmin ❘ Abaug ❘ Bmaj ❘ Cmaj ❘ Ddim ❘ Edim

Key of G Melodic Minor

Gmin ❘ Amin ❘ Bbaug ❘ Cmaj ❘ Dmaj ❘ Edim ❘ F#dim


Heavenly Harmonic Minor Keys


Key of C Harmonic Minor

Cmin ❘ Ddim ❘ Ebaug ❘ Fmin ❘ Gmaj ❘ Abmaj ❘ Bdim

Key of D Harmonic Minor

Dmin ❘ Edim ❘ Faug ❘ Gmin ❘ Amaj ❘ Bbmaj ❘ C#dim

Key of E Harmonic Minor

Emin ❘ F#dim ❘ Gaug ❘ Amin ❘ Bmaj ❘ Cmaj ❘ D#dim

Key of F Harmonic Minor

Fmin ❘ Gdim ❘ Abaug ❘ Bbmin ❘ Cmaj ❘ Dbmaj ❘ Edim

Key of A Harmonic Minor

Amin ❘ Bdim ❘ Caug ❘ Dmin ❘ Emaj ❘ Fmaj ❘ G#dim

Key of B Harmonic Minor

Bmin ❘ C#dim ❘ Daug ❘ Emin ❘ F#maj ❘ Gmaj ❘ A#dim

Meter + Blues Notes + Common Tones + Melodic Minor

 

Meter

In music the most popular time signature is called common time, also known as 4/4.

Musicians and chefs have explained a phenomenon called cut time, also known as 2/2. It uses the currency symbol, ¢.

Another popular time signature is 3/4.

Another popular time signature is 2/4.

To remember 4/4 as it sounds, repeat four syllables in your head. ex. television (tel-e-vi-sion)

To remember 3/4 as it sounds, repeat three syllables in your head. ex. Ghostbusters (ghost-bust-ers)

To remember 2/4 as it sounds, repeat two syllables in your head. ex. TV

There are many more time signatures, 5/4, THATS FIVE QUARTER BEATS IN A MEASURE, 6/8, 9/8, 19/16, and other improper fractions, but they are probably only used by intellectuals and mathematicians.

 

Seventh Chords

Seventh chords are made up of a root, 3rd, 5th and 7th. For example Cmaj7 has the notes C E G B.

Dominant seventh chords are made up of a root, 3rd, 5th and flat 7th. For example C7 has the notes C E G Bb.

Minor seventh chords are made up of a root, flat 3rd, 5th and flat 7th. Another way to think of it is the minor triad with a flat 7th. For example Cmin7 has the notes C Eb G Bb.

Minor seventh chords are made up of a root, flat 3rd, 5th and flat 7th. Another way to think of it is as a minor triad with a flat 7th. For example Cmin7 has the notes C Eb G Bb.

Minor seventh flat 5 chords are made up of a root, flat 3rd, flat 5th and flat 7th. Another way to think of it is a diminished triad with a flat 7th. Cmin7b5 has the notes C Eb Gb Bb.

The diminished 7th chord is made up of a root, flat 3rd, flat 5th and flat 7th. Another way to think of it is a diminished triad with a double flat 7th. This is confusing, just think of the top note as being one note down. Cmin7b5 has the notes C Eb Gb Bbb.

 

Common Tones

One way to change between chords is to use a note the two have in

common, a common tone.

For example, the F# in a D chord (DF#A) and the F# in Bmin (BDF#) is a common tone you can use to switch between the two chords smoothly.

Another way to change chords is to use a step. For example the half step from C to C# in the chromatic scale.

 

Cadences

Are cadences important to learn? Whether or not they are, a full cadence is when you return to the I chord, in a full circle, a half cadence is when you end on the V chord, half way through the tone cycle.

 

Modulation

Modulation. Is it just a fancy term for changing key? Yes. If someone wants to do a parallel key modulation, what they mean is they want to change from the major to the minor or the minor to the major. For example, A major's parallel modulation would be to go to A minor. 

 

Blues Notes

The Blues Notes, the flatted 3rd, 5th and 7th will give you extra blues.

 

Pentatonic Scales

Pentatonic Scales contain notes of the major or minor scale they emulate, minus the 4th and 7th notes of the scales. For example, A minor pentatonic is  A C D E G. The B and the F are purposely removed, like hamsters at playtime.

Music Theory

 

Major Keys

The Legendary Key of C

Key of C (A minor)

Cmaj ❘ Dmin ❘ Emin ❘ Fmaj ❘ Gmaj ❘ Amin ❘ Bdim

Key of C ❘ 7 Chords

Cmaj7 ❘ Dmin7 ❘ Emin7 ❘ Fmaj7 ❘ G7 ❘ Amin7 ❘ Bmin7 flat 5

Key of C# (Bb minor)

C#maj ❘ D#min ❘ E#min ❘ F#maj ❘ G#maj ❘ A#min ❘ B#dim

Key of C# ❘ 7 Chords

C#maj7 ❘ D#min7 ❘ E#min7 ❘ F#maj7 ❘ G#7 ❘ A#min7 ❘ B#min7 flat 5

The Decadent Key of D

Key of D (B minor)

Dmaj ❘ Emin ❘ F#min ❘ Gmaj ❘ Amaj ❘ Bmin ❘ C#dim

Key of D ❘ 7 Chords

Dmaj7 ❘ Emin7 ❘ F#min7 ❘ Gmaj7 ❘ A7 ❘ Bmin 7 ❘ C#min7 flat 5

Key of Eb (C minor)

Ebmaj ❘ Fmin ❘ Gmin ❘ Abmaj ❘ Bbmaj ❘ Cmin ❘ Ddim

Key of Eb ❘ 7 Chords

Ebmaj7 ❘ Fmin7 ❘ Gmin7 ❘ Abmaj7 ❘ Bbmaj7 ❘ Cmin7 ❘ Dm7b5

The Almighty Key of A

Key of A (F# minor)

Amaj ❘ Bmin ❘ C#min ❘ Dmaj ❘ Emaj ❘ F#min ❘ G#dim

Key of A ❘ 7 Chords

Amaj7 ❘ Bmin7 ❘ C#min7 ❘ Dmaj7 ❘ Emaj 7 ❘ F#min7 ❘ G#dim7

Key of Ab (F minor)

Abmaj ❘ Bbmin ❘ Cmin ❘ Dbmaj ❘ Ebmaj ❘ Fmin ❘ Gdim

Key of Ab ❘ 7 Chords

Abmaj7 ❘ Bbmin7 ❘ Cmin7 ❘ Dbmaj7 ❘ Eb7 ❘ Fmin7 ❘ G min 7 flat 5

The Erotic Key of E

Key of E (C# minor)

Emaj ❘ F#min ❘ G#min ❘ Amaj ❘ Bmaj ❘ C#min ❘ D#dim

Key of E ❘ 7 Chords

Emaj 7 ❘ F#min7 ❘ G#min7 ❘ Amaj7 ❘ B7 ❘ C#min7 ❘ D#min 7 flat 5

Key of B (Cb minor)

Bmaj ❘ C#min ❘ D#min ❘ Emaj ❘ F#maj ❘ G#min ❘ A#dim

Key of B ❘ 7 Chords

Bmaj7 ❘ C#min7 ❘ D#min7 ❘ Emaj7 ❘ F#maj7 ❘ G#min7 ❘ A#min 7 flat 5

The Flavorful Key of F

Key of F (D minor)

Fmaj ❘ Gmin ❘ Amin ❘ Bbmaj ❘ Cmaj ❘ Dmin ❘ Edim

Key of F ❘ 7 Chords

Fmaj7 ❘ Gmin7 ❘ Amin7 ❘ Bbmaj7 ❘ C7 ❘ Dmin7 ❘ Emin 7 flat 5

Key of F# (Gb minor)

F#maj ❘ G#min ❘ A#min ❘ Bmaj ❘ C#maj ❘ D#min ❘ E#dim

Key of F# ❘ 7 Chords

Gbmaj7 ❘ Abmin7 ❘ Bmin7 ❘ Cbmaj7 ❘ Db7 ❘ Ebmin7 ❘ F min 7 flat 5

 

Memory Palaces

The Method of Loci is uses visualization to remember lots of info. To remember the key signatures think of images for them. For example, Bb major has B and E flat. Think that you want to BE with B.B. (Brigitte Bardot's initials) 

Heavenly Harmonic Minor Keys

 

Heavenly Harmonic Minor Keys

Key of C Harmonic Minor

Cmin ❘ Ddim ❘ Ebaug ❘ Fmin ❘ Gmaj ❘ Abmaj ❘ Bdim

Key of D Harmonic Minor

Dmin ❘ Edim ❘ Faug ❘ Gmin ❘ Amaj ❘ Bbmaj ❘ C#dim

Key of E Harmonic Minor

Emin ❘ F#dim ❘ Gaug ❘ Amin ❘ Bmaj ❘ Cmaj ❘ D#dim

Key of F Harmonic Minor

Fmin ❘ Gdim ❘ Abaug ❘ Bbmin ❘ Cmaj ❘ Dbmaj ❘ Edim

Key of A Harmonic Minor

Amin ❘ Bdim ❘ Caug ❘ Dmin ❘ Emaj ❘ Fmaj ❘ G#dim

Key of B Harmonic Minor

Bmin ❘ C#dim ❘ Daug ❘ Emin ❘ F#maj ❘ Gmaj ❘ A#dim


 

Major Scales

 

Major Scales

The formula for major scales is 

whole step, whole, half, whole,

whole, whole, half

ẘ = whole

ȟ = half 

major = ẘȟȟ

 

Key of A

A B C# D E F# G# A

 ẘ  ẘ  ȟ  ẘ  ẘ  ẘ  ȟ

Key of B

B C# D# E F# G# A# B

 ẘ  ẘ  ȟ   ẘ   ẘ   ẘ   ȟ

Key of C

C D E F G A B C

  ẘ ẘ ȟ ẘ ẘ ẘ ȟ  


 

Major Scales

The formula for major scales is 

whole step, whole, half, whole,

whole, whole, half

ẘ = whole

ȟ = half 

major = ẘȟȟ

 

Key of A

A B C# D E F# G# A

 ẘ ẘ   ȟ   ẘ  ẘ  ẘ  ȟ

Key of B

B C# D# E F# G# A# B

 ẘ  ẘ  ȟ   ẘ   ẘ   ẘ   ȟ

Key of C

C D E F G A B C

  ẘ ẘ ȟ  ẘ ẘ ẘ ȟ  

 

Major Scales

The formula for major scales is 

whole step, whole, half, whole,

whole, whole, half

ẘ = whole

ȟ = half 

major = ẘȟȟ

 

Key of A

A B C# D E F# G# A

 ẘ ẘ   ȟ   ẘ  ẘ  ẘ  ȟ

Key of B

B C# D# E F# G# A# B

 ẘ  ẘ  ȟ   ẘ   ẘ   ẘ   ȟ

Key of C

C D E F G A B C

  ẘ ẘ ȟ  ẘ ẘ ẘ ȟ  

 

Sheet Music

 

Click Beethoven for Sheet Music of the Major Scales

 

Arpeggios

 

 

Arpeggios

are chords broken up into individual notes. A good way to transition from chord to another in an arpeggio is to use a common tone which is a shared note between both chords. 

 

Inverted Chords

 

Chord Inversions

Chords can be played many ways all long as you include the notes of the triad.

For example, C is normally spelled C E G. But it can also be E G C. This is the first inversion. G C E is the second inversion of C.

D minor is normally spelled D F A. But it can also be F A D. This is the first inversion of D. A D F is the second inversion of D minor.

F minor is normally spelled F Ab C. But it can also be Ab C F. This is the first inversion of F minor. C F Ab is the second inversion of F minor.

Now with diminished chords, the third and fifth are flat. So C diminished is C Eb Gb. The first inversion is Eb Gb C. The second inversion of C diminished is Gb C Eb.

One last example. With augmented chords, the fifth is sharp. So C augmented is C E G#. The first inversion is E G# C. The second inversion of C augmented is G# C E.

This concept also applies to 7th, 9th 11th and 13th chords. Play around with the notes of the chords and they can be inverted in many ways. It will expand your sonic knowledge.


 

Meter + Seventh Chords

 

 

Meter

In music the most popular time signature is called common time, also known as 4/4.

Musicians and chefs have explained a phenomenon called cut time, also known as 2/2. It uses the currency symbol, ¢.

Another popular time signature is 3/4.

Another popular time signature is 2/4.

To remember 4/4 as it sounds, repeat four syllables in your head. ex. television (tel-e-vi-sion)

To remember 3/4 as it sounds, repeat three syllables in your head. ex. Ghostbusters (ghost-bust-ers)

To remember 2/4 as it sounds, repeat two syllables in your head. ex. TV

There are many more time signatures, 5/4, THATS FIVE QUARTER BEATS IN A MEASURE, 6/8, 9/8, 19/16, and other improper fractions, but they are probably only used by intellectuals and mathematicians.

 

Seventh Chords

Seventh chords are made up of a root, 3rd, 5th and 7th. For example Cmaj7 has the notes C E G B.

Dominant seventh chords are made up of a root, 3rd, 5th and flat 7th. For example C7 has the notes C E G Bb.

Minor seventh chords are made up of a root, flat 3rd, 5th and flat 7th. Another way to think of it is the minor triad with a flat 7th. For example Cmin7 has the notes C Eb G Bb.

Minor seventh chords are made up of a root, flat 3rd, 5th and flat 7th. Another way to think of it is as a minor triad with a flat 7th. For example Cmin7 has the notes C Eb G Bb.

Minor seventh flat 5 chords are made up of a root, flat 3rd, flat 5th and flat 7th. Another way to think of it is a diminished triad with a flat 7th. Cmin7b5 has the notes C Eb Gb Bb.

The diminished 7th chord is made up of a root, flat 3rd, flat 5th and flat 7th. Another way to think of it is a diminished triad with a double flat 7th. This is confusing, just think of the top note as being one note down. Cmin7b5 has the notes C Eb Gb Bbb.

 

Common Tones

One way to change between chords is to use a note the two have in

common, a common tone.

For example, the F# in a D chord (DF#A) and the F# in Bmin (BDF#) is a common tone you can use to switch between the two chords smoothly.

Another way to change chords is to use a step. For example the half step from C to C# in the chromatic scale.


Music Theory

 

Major Keys

The Legendary Key of C

Key of C (A minor)

Cmaj ❘ Dmin ❘ Emin ❘ Fmaj ❘ Gmaj ❘ Amin ❘ Bdim

Key of C ❘ 7 Chords

Cmaj7 ❘ Dmin7 ❘ Emin7 ❘ Fmaj7 ❘ G7 ❘ Amin7 ❘ Bmin7 flat 5

Key of C# (Bb minor)

C#maj ❘ D#min ❘ E#min ❘ F#maj ❘ G#maj ❘ A#min ❘ B#dim

Key of C# ❘ 7 Chords

C#maj7 ❘ D#min7 ❘ E#min7 ❘ F#maj7 ❘ G#7 ❘ A#min7 ❘ B#min7 flat 5

The Decadent Key of D

Key of D (B minor)

Dmaj ❘ Emin ❘ F#min ❘ Gmaj ❘ Amaj ❘ Bmin ❘ C#dim

Key of D ❘ 7 Chords

Dmaj7 ❘ Emin7 ❘ F#min7 ❘ Gmaj7 ❘ A7 ❘ Bmin 7 ❘ C#min7 flat 5

Key of Eb (C minor)

Ebmaj ❘ Fmin ❘ Gmin ❘ Abmaj ❘ Bbmaj ❘ Cmin ❘ Ddim

Key of Eb ❘ 7 Chords

Ebmaj7 ❘ Fmin7 ❘ Gmin7 ❘ Abmaj7 ❘ Bbmaj7 ❘ Cmin7 ❘ Dm7b5

The Almighty Key of A

Key of A (F# minor)

Amaj ❘ Bmin ❘ C#min ❘ Dmaj ❘ Emaj ❘ F#min ❘ G#dim

Key of A ❘ 7 Chords

Amaj7 ❘ Bmin7 ❘ C#min7 ❘ Dmaj7 ❘ Emaj 7 ❘ F#min7 ❘ G#dim7

Key of Ab (F minor)

Abmaj ❘ Bbmin ❘ Cmin ❘ Dbmaj ❘ Ebmaj ❘ Fmin ❘ Gdim

Key of Ab ❘ 7 Chords

Abmaj7 ❘ Bbmin7 ❘ Cmin7 ❘ Dbmaj7 ❘ Eb7 ❘ Fmin7 ❘ G min 7 flat 5

The Erotic Key of E

Key of E (C# minor)

Emaj ❘ F#min ❘ G#min ❘ Amaj ❘ Bmaj ❘ C#min ❘ D#dim

Key of E ❘ 7 Chords

Emaj 7 ❘ F#min7 ❘ G#min7 ❘ Amaj7 ❘ B7 ❘ C#min7 ❘ D#min 7 flat 5

Key of B (Cb minor)

Bmaj ❘ C#min ❘ D#min ❘ Emaj ❘ F#maj ❘ G#min ❘ A#dim

Key of B ❘ 7 Chords

Bmaj7 ❘ C#min7 ❘ D#min7 ❘ Emaj7 ❘ F#maj7 ❘ G#min7 ❘ A#min 7 flat 5

The Flavorful Key of F

Key of F (D minor)

Fmaj ❘ Gmin ❘ Amin ❘ Bbmaj ❘ Cmaj ❘ Dmin ❘ Edim

Key of F ❘ 7 Chords

Fmaj7 ❘ Gmin7 ❘ Amin7 ❘ Bbmaj7 ❘ C7 ❘ Dmin7 ❘ Emin 7 flat 5

Key of F# (Gb minor)

F#maj ❘ G#min ❘ A#min ❘ Bmaj ❘ C#maj ❘ D#min ❘ E#dim

Key of F# ❘ 7 Chords

Gbmaj7 ❘ Abmin7 ❘ Bmin7 ❘ Cbmaj7 ❘ Db7 ❘ Ebmin7 ❘ F min 7 flat 5

 

Memory Palaces

The Method of Loci is uses visualization to remember lots of info. To remember the key signatures think of images for them. For example, Bb major has B and E flat. Think that you want to BE with B.B. (Brigitte Bardot's initials) 

Heavenly Harmonic Minor Keys

 

Heavenly Harmonic Minor Keys

Key of C Harmonic Minor

Cmin ❘ Ddim ❘ Ebaug ❘ Fmin ❘ Gmaj ❘ Abmaj ❘ Bdim

Key of D Harmonic Minor

Dmin ❘ Edim ❘ Faug ❘ Gmin ❘ Amaj ❘ Bbmaj ❘ C#dim

Key of E Harmonic Minor

Emin ❘ F#dim ❘ Gaug ❘ Amin ❘ Bmaj ❘ Cmaj ❘ D#dim

Key of F Harmonic Minor

Fmin ❘ Gdim ❘ Abaug ❘ Bbmin ❘ Cmaj ❘ Dbmaj ❘ Edim

Key of A Harmonic Minor

Amin ❘ Bdim ❘ Caug ❘ Dmin ❘ Emaj ❘ Fmaj ❘ G#dim

Key of B Harmonic Minor

Bmin ❘ C#dim ❘ Daug ❘ Emin ❘ F#maj ❘ Gmaj ❘ A#dim


 

Major Scales

 

Major Scales

The formula for major scales is 

whole step, whole, half, whole,

whole, whole, half

ẘ = whole

ȟ = half 

major = ẘȟȟ

 

Key of A

A B C# D E F# G# A

 ẘ  ẘ  ȟ  ẘ  ẘ  ẘ  ȟ

Key of B

B C# D# E F# G# A# B

 ẘ  ẘ  ȟ   ẘ   ẘ   ẘ   ȟ

Key of C

C D E F G A B C

  ẘ ẘ ȟ ẘ ẘ ẘ ȟ  


 

Major Scales

The formula for major scales is 

whole step, whole, half, whole,

whole, whole, half

ẘ = whole

ȟ = half 

major = ẘȟȟ

 

Key of A

A B C# D E F# G# A

 ẘ ẘ   ȟ   ẘ  ẘ  ẘ  ȟ

Key of B

B C# D# E F# G# A# B

 ẘ  ẘ  ȟ   ẘ   ẘ   ẘ   ȟ

Key of C

C D E F G A B C

  ẘ ẘ ȟ  ẘ ẘ ẘ ȟ  

 

Major Scales

The formula for major scales is 

whole step, whole, half, whole,

whole, whole, half

ẘ = whole

ȟ = half 

major = ẘȟȟ

 

Key of A

A B C# D E F# G# A

 ẘ ẘ   ȟ   ẘ  ẘ  ẘ  ȟ

Key of B

B C# D# E F# G# A# B

 ẘ  ẘ  ȟ   ẘ   ẘ   ẘ   ȟ

Key of C

C D E F G A B C

  ẘ ẘ ȟ  ẘ ẘ ẘ ȟ  

 

Sheet Music

 

Click Beethoven for Sheet Music of the Major Scales

 

Arpeggios

 

 

Arpeggios

are chords broken up into individual notes. A good way to transition from chord to another in an arpeggio is to use a common tone which is a shared note between both chords. 

 

Inverted Chords

 

Chord Inversions

Chords can be played many ways all long as you include the notes of the triad.

For example, C is normally spelled C E G. But it can also be E G C. This is the first inversion. G C E is the second inversion of C.

D minor is normally spelled D F A. But it can also be F A D. This is the first inversion of D. A D F is the second inversion of D minor.

F minor is normally spelled F Ab C. But it can also be Ab C F. This is the first inversion of F minor. C F Ab is the second inversion of F minor.

Now with diminished chords, the third and fifth are flat. So C diminished is C Eb Gb. The first inversion is Eb Gb C. The second inversion of C diminished is Gb C Eb.

One last example. With augmented chords, the fifth is sharp. So C augmented is C E G#. The first inversion is E G# C. The second inversion of C augmented is G# C E.

This concept also applies to 7th, 9th 11th and 13th chords. Play around with the notes of the chords and they can be inverted in many ways. It will expand your sonic knowledge.


 

Meter + Seventh Chords

 

 

Meter

In music the most popular time signature is called common time, also known as 4/4.

Musicians and chefs have explained a phenomenon called cut time, also known as 2/2. It uses the currency symbol, ¢.

Another popular time signature is 3/4.

Another popular time signature is 2/4.

To remember 4/4 as it sounds, repeat four syllables in your head. ex. television (tel-e-vi-sion)

To remember 3/4 as it sounds, repeat three syllables in your head. ex. Ghostbusters (ghost-bust-ers)

To remember 2/4 as it sounds, repeat two syllables in your head. ex. TV

There are many more time signatures, 5/4, THATS FIVE QUARTER BEATS IN A MEASURE, 6/8, 9/8, 19/16, and other improper fractions, but they are probably only used by intellectuals and mathematicians.

 

Seventh Chords

Seventh chords are made up of a root, 3rd, 5th and 7th. For example Cmaj7 has the notes C E G B.

Dominant seventh chords are made up of a root, 3rd, 5th and flat 7th. For example C7 has the notes C E G Bb.

Minor seventh chords are made up of a root, flat 3rd, 5th and flat 7th. Another way to think of it is the minor triad with a flat 7th. For example Cmin7 has the notes C Eb G Bb.

Minor seventh chords are made up of a root, flat 3rd, 5th and flat 7th. Another way to think of it is as a minor triad with a flat 7th. For example Cmin7 has the notes C Eb G Bb.

Minor seventh flat 5 chords are made up of a root, flat 3rd, flat 5th and flat 7th. Another way to think of it is a diminished triad with a flat 7th. Cmin7b5 has the notes C Eb Gb Bb.

The diminished 7th chord is made up of a root, flat 3rd, flat 5th and flat 7th. Another way to think of it is a diminished triad with a double flat 7th. This is confusing, just think of the top note as being one note down. Cmin7b5 has the notes C Eb Gb Bbb.

 

Common Tones

One way to change between chords is to use a note the two have in

common, a common tone.

For example, the F# in a D chord (DF#A) and the F# in Bmin (BDF#) is a common tone you can use to switch between the two chords smoothly.

Another way to change chords is to use a step. For example the half step from C to C# in the chromatic scale.


Music Theory

 

Major Keys

The Legendary Key of C

Key of C (A minor)

Cmaj ❘ Dmin ❘ Emin ❘ Fmaj ❘ Gmaj ❘ Amin ❘ Bdim

Key of C ❘ 7 Chords

Cmaj7 ❘ Dmin7 ❘ Emin7 ❘ Fmaj7 ❘ G7 ❘ Amin7 ❘ Bmin7 flat 5

Key of C# (Bb minor)

C#maj ❘ D#min ❘ E#min ❘ F#maj ❘ G#maj ❘ A#min ❘ B#dim

Key of C# ❘ 7 Chords

C#maj7 ❘ D#min7 ❘ E#min7 ❘ F#maj7 ❘ G#7 ❘ A#min7 ❘ B#min7 flat 5

The Decadent Key of D

Key of D (B minor)

Dmaj ❘ Emin ❘ F#min ❘ Gmaj ❘ Amaj ❘ Bmin ❘ C#dim

Key of D ❘ 7 Chords

Dmaj7 ❘ Emin7 ❘ F#min7 ❘ Gmaj7 ❘ A7 ❘ Bmin 7 ❘ C#min7 flat 5

Key of Eb (C minor)

Ebmaj ❘ Fmin ❘ Gmin ❘ Abmaj ❘ Bbmaj ❘ Cmin ❘ Ddim

Key of Eb ❘ 7 Chords

Ebmaj7 ❘ Fmin7 ❘ Gmin7 ❘ Abmaj7 ❘ Bbmaj7 ❘ Cmin7 ❘ Dm7b5

The Almighty Key of A

Key of A (F# minor)

Amaj ❘ Bmin ❘ C#min ❘ Dmaj ❘ Emaj ❘ F#min ❘ G#dim

Key of A ❘ 7 Chords

Amaj7 ❘ Bmin7 ❘ C#min7 ❘ Dmaj7 ❘ Emaj 7 ❘ F#min7 ❘ G#dim7

Key of Ab (F minor)

Abmaj ❘ Bbmin ❘ Cmin ❘ Dbmaj ❘ Ebmaj ❘ Fmin ❘ Gdim

Key of Ab ❘ 7 Chords

Abmaj7 ❘ Bbmin7 ❘ Cmin7 ❘ Dbmaj7 ❘ Eb7 ❘ Fmin7 ❘ G min 7 flat 5

The Erotic Key of E

Key of E (C# minor)

Emaj ❘ F#min ❘ G#min ❘ Amaj ❘ Bmaj ❘ C#min ❘ D#dim

Key of E ❘ 7 Chords

Emaj 7 ❘ F#min7 ❘ G#min7 ❘ Amaj7 ❘ B7 ❘ C#min7 ❘ D#min 7 flat 5

Key of B (Cb minor)

Bmaj ❘ C#min ❘ D#min ❘ Emaj ❘ F#maj ❘ G#min ❘ A#dim

Key of B ❘ 7 Chords

Bmaj7 ❘ C#min7 ❘ D#min7 ❘ Emaj7 ❘ F#maj7 ❘ G#min7 ❘ A#min 7 flat 5

The Flavorful Key of F

Key of F (D minor)

Fmaj ❘ Gmin ❘ Amin ❘ Bbmaj ❘ Cmaj ❘ Dmin ❘ Edim

Key of F ❘ 7 Chords

Fmaj7 ❘ Gmin7 ❘ Amin7 ❘ Bbmaj7 ❘ C7 ❘ Dmin7 ❘ Emin 7 flat 5

Key of F# (Gb minor)

F#maj ❘ G#min ❘ A#min ❘ Bmaj ❘ C#maj ❘ D#min ❘ E#dim

Key of F# ❘ 7 Chords

Gbmaj7 ❘ Abmin7 ❘ Bmin7 ❘ Cbmaj7 ❘ Db7 ❘ Ebmin7 ❘ F min 7 flat 5

 

Memory Palaces

The Method of Loci is uses visualization to remember lots of info. To remember the key signatures think of images for them. For example, Bb major has B and E flat. Think that you want to BE with B.B. (Brigitte Bardot's initials) 

Heavenly Harmonic Minor Keys

 

Heavenly Harmonic Minor Keys

Key of C Harmonic Minor

Cmin ❘ Ddim ❘ Ebaug ❘ Fmin ❘ Gmaj ❘ Abmaj ❘ Bdim

Key of D Harmonic Minor

Dmin ❘ Edim ❘ Faug ❘ Gmin ❘ Amaj ❘ Bbmaj ❘ C#dim

Key of E Harmonic Minor

Emin ❘ F#dim ❘ Gaug ❘ Amin ❘ Bmaj ❘ Cmaj ❘ D#dim

Key of F Harmonic Minor

Fmin ❘ Gdim ❘ Abaug ❘ Bbmin ❘ Cmaj ❘ Dbmaj ❘ Edim

Key of A Harmonic Minor

Amin ❘ Bdim ❘ Caug ❘ Dmin ❘ Emaj ❘ Fmaj ❘ G#dim

Key of B Harmonic Minor

Bmin ❘ C#dim ❘ Daug ❘ Emin ❘ F#maj ❘ Gmaj ❘ A#dim


 

Major Scales

 

Major Scales

The formula for major scales is 

whole step, whole, half, whole,

whole, whole, half

ẘ = whole

ȟ = half 

major = ẘȟȟ

 

Key of A

A B C# D E F# G# A

 ẘ  ẘ  ȟ  ẘ  ẘ  ẘ  ȟ

Key of B

B C# D# E F# G# A# B

 ẘ  ẘ  ȟ   ẘ   ẘ   ẘ   ȟ

Key of C

C D E F G A B C

  ẘ ẘ ȟ ẘ ẘ ẘ ȟ  


 

Major Scales

The formula for major scales is 

whole step, whole, half, whole,

whole, whole, half

ẘ = whole

ȟ = half 

major = ẘȟȟ

 

Key of A

A B C# D E F# G# A

 ẘ ẘ   ȟ   ẘ  ẘ  ẘ  ȟ

Key of B

B C# D# E F# G# A# B

 ẘ  ẘ  ȟ   ẘ   ẘ   ẘ   ȟ

Key of C

C D E F G A B C

  ẘ ẘ ȟ  ẘ ẘ ẘ ȟ  

 

Major Scales

The formula for major scales is 

whole step, whole, half, whole,

whole, whole, half

ẘ = whole

ȟ = half 

major = ẘȟȟ

 

Key of A

A B C# D E F# G# A

 ẘ ẘ   ȟ   ẘ  ẘ  ẘ  ȟ

Key of B

B C# D# E F# G# A# B

 ẘ  ẘ  ȟ   ẘ   ẘ   ẘ   ȟ

Key of C

C D E F G A B C

  ẘ ẘ ȟ  ẘ ẘ ẘ ȟ  

 

Sheet Music

 

Click Beethoven for Sheet Music of the Major Scales

 

Arpeggios

 

 

Arpeggios

are chords broken up into individual notes. A good way to transition from chord to another in an arpeggio is to use a common tone which is a shared note between both chords. 

 

Inverted Chords

 

Chord Inversions

Chords can be played many ways all long as you include the notes of the triad.

For example, C is normally spelled C E G. But it can also be E G C. This is the first inversion. G C E is the second inversion of C.

D minor is normally spelled D F A. But it can also be F A D. This is the first inversion of D. A D F is the second inversion of D minor.

F minor is normally spelled F Ab C. But it can also be Ab C F. This is the first inversion of F minor. C F Ab is the second inversion of F minor.

Now with diminished chords, the third and fifth are flat. So C diminished is C Eb Gb. The first inversion is Eb Gb C. The second inversion of C diminished is Gb C Eb.

One last example. With augmented chords, the fifth is sharp. So C augmented is C E G#. The first inversion is E G# C. The second inversion of C augmented is G# C E.

This concept also applies to 7th, 9th 11th and 13th chords. Play around with the notes of the chords and they can be inverted in many ways. It will expand your sonic knowledge.


 

Meter + Seventh Chords

 

 

Meter

In music the most popular time signature is called common time, also known as 4/4.

Musicians and chefs have explained a phenomenon called cut time, also known as 2/2. It uses the currency symbol, ¢.

Another popular time signature is 3/4.

Another popular time signature is 2/4.

To remember 4/4 as it sounds, repeat four syllables in your head. ex. television (tel-e-vi-sion)

To remember 3/4 as it sounds, repeat three syllables in your head. ex. Ghostbusters (ghost-bust-ers)

To remember 2/4 as it sounds, repeat two syllables in your head. ex. TV

There are many more time signatures, 5/4, THATS FIVE QUARTER BEATS IN A MEASURE, 6/8, 9/8, 19/16, and other improper fractions, but they are probably only used by intellectuals and mathematicians.

 

Seventh Chords

Seventh chords are made up of a root, 3rd, 5th and 7th. For example Cmaj7 has the notes C E G B.

Dominant seventh chords are made up of a root, 3rd, 5th and flat 7th. For example C7 has the notes C E G Bb.

Minor seventh chords are made up of a root, flat 3rd, 5th and flat 7th. Another way to think of it is the minor triad with a flat 7th. For example Cmin7 has the notes C Eb G Bb.

Minor seventh chords are made up of a root, flat 3rd, 5th and flat 7th. Another way to think of it is as a minor triad with a flat 7th. For example Cmin7 has the notes C Eb G Bb.

Minor seventh flat 5 chords are made up of a root, flat 3rd, flat 5th and flat 7th. Another way to think of it is a diminished triad with a flat 7th. Cmin7b5 has the notes C Eb Gb Bb.

The diminished 7th chord is made up of a root, flat 3rd, flat 5th and flat 7th. Another way to think of it is a diminished triad with a double flat 7th. This is confusing, just think of the top note as being one note down. Cmin7b5 has the notes C Eb Gb Bbb.

 

Common Tones

One way to change between chords is to use a note the two have in

common, a common tone.

For example, the F# in a D chord (DF#A) and the F# in Bmin (BDF#) is a common tone you can use to switch between the two chords smoothly.

Another way to change chords is to use a step. For example the half step from C to C# in the chromatic scale.


Open Tunings

Alternative tuning are like visiting a foreign country, they open up a whole new world of exploration. 

Here is standard tuning (Elephants And Donkeys Grow Big Ears) for comparison, amigo.

 

Standard ~ EADGBE

Half-Step ~ D#G#C#F#A#D#

Dropped D ~ DADGBE

 

 

5 Open Tunings

  

Open D5 DADADD

Open D DADF#AD

Open E EBEG#BE 

Open F FACFCF 

Open G DGDGBD 

 

In open E, just strum for an E major. All of these work the same way. If you bar your fingers of gold across across all the strings you will be playing a major chord. For example, in Open D, if you fret all the strings at the first fret it will be a D# major chord. Make the wandering soul of Curtis Mayfield proud, and remember that between E & F and B & C, no sharps or flats exist. So if you capo the first fret of open E, you will be playing an F chord. 

 

To play, Troubles Will Be Gone, in open G, click here

Chord Charts in Green

Major Chords

 

A:       002220

B:       x24442

C:       032010

D:       000232

E:       022100

F:       133211

F#:     244322

 

Normal G:                320001

Nashville style G:   3x0033

 

 

Minor Chords

 

(basic)

Am:  002210

Bm:  x24432

Cm:  x35543

Dm:  xxx231

Em:  022000

Fm:  133111

Gm:  310001

Nashville G minor:     3x0330

 

(movable)

A minor   577555

B minor   x24432

C minor   x35543

D minor   x57765

E minor    x79987  

F minor    133111

F# minor 244222

G minor   366333 

 

Movable Suspended Chords

 

Sus2 

A Sus2 002200

B Sus2 224422 

C Sus2 335533 

D Sus2 x00230

 

Sus4 

E Sus4 022200

F Sus4 133311

G Sus4 366633

A Sus4 577755 

6 Chords

A6: xx7979

B6: x24444

C6: x35555

C#6:x46666

D6: x57777

Eb6:x68888

E6: x79999

F6: xx3535

G6: xx5757

 

Dominant 7 Chords

 

A7: x02020

B7: x21202

C7: x32310

D7: xx0212

E7: 020100

F7: 131211

G7: 320001

 

Major 7 Chords

 

A7: x02120

B7: x13231

C7: x35453

D7: x57675

E7: x79897

F7: xx3555

G7: xx5777

 

Minor 7 Chords

 

Am7: x02010

Bm7: x20202

Cm7: xx1313

Dm7: xx0211

Em7: 020000

Fm7: 131111

Gm7: xx3333

 

Moveable 9 Chords

I hate these jazz sounds, but to each his own.

 

A9: xx5455

B9: xx7677

C9: x32333

D9: x54555

E9: x76777

F9: x87888

G9: xx3233

 

Major 9 

 

AM9: xx7454

BM9: x2132x

CM9: x3243x

DM9: x5465x

EM9: x7687x

FM9: x8798x

GM9: xx5232

 

Minor 9

 

Am9: 575557

Bm9: 797779

Cm9: x3133x

Dm9: x5355x

Em9: x7577x

Fm9: x8688x

Gm9: 353335

 

Add 9

 

(movable)

D add9 2x0230

E add9 4x2452

F add9 5x3563

G add9 7x5795

 

Movable 11 Chords

 

(two shapes)

A11 575755

B11 797977

C11 x35363

D11 x57585

E11 020200 

F11 131311

G11 363633 

 

Movable 13 Chords

 

A13: xx5675

B13: xx7897

C13: 000313

D13: 030202

E13: 000000 

F13: x6776x

G13: xx3455

 

James Brown & Jimi Hendrix Chords

 

Movable James Brown chords. 

B7/9 x21222

C7/9 x32333 

D7/9         x54555

E7/9   x76777 

F7/9 x87888 

 

Movable Hendrix chords.

A7/#9    4544xx

B7/#9   7677xx

C7/#9   8788xx 

 

Inversions

 

Here’re a few awesome sounding triad inversions.

C:    xxx553

Cm:  xxx543

G:   xxx433

G:   xxx787

F:   xxx(10)(10)(8)

G:   xxx(12)(12)(10)

 

Super secret chord

x3x213 

Image by Macroscopic Solutions